Melatonin and Titanium Nanoparticles Reduce Cadmium Toxicity in Sage Plants

Jenn Hoskins
6th July, 2024

Melatonin and Titanium Nanoparticles Reduce Cadmium Toxicity in Sage Plants

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • Researchers from Islamic Azad University found that Cd contamination in soil severely harms sage plants, reducing growth and increasing oxidative damage
  • Applying melatonin (MT) and titanium nanoparticles (Ti NPs) to sage plants significantly reduced oxidative damage and improved growth
  • MT at 200 μM was particularly effective, enhancing biochemical reactions and reducing Cd accumulation in plant tissues
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soils is a pressing issue, as Cd is a toxic pollutant that poses significant risks to both plant and animal health. Addressing this problem, researchers from Islamic Azad University, Tonekabone, have conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of melatonin (MT) and titanium nanoparticles (Ti NPs) in mitigating Cd toxicity in sage plants (Salvia officinalis L.)[1]. This study aims to fill the gap in understanding the comparative impacts of these substances on reducing Cd stress in sage plants. Cd toxicity is known to impair plant growth, increase lipid peroxidation, and disrupt essential physiological processes. The study conducted a factorial experiment using foliar applications of MT (at 100 and 200 μM) and Ti NPs (at 50 and 100 mg L-1) on sage plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils (10 and 20 mg Cd kg-1 soil). The results demonstrated that Cd stress significantly reduced plant growth and increased lipid peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL). Specifically, Cd stress at 20 mg kg-1 soil led to substantial increases in Cd accumulation in roots (693%) and shoots (429%), as well as elevated EL (29%) and MDA (72%). Interestingly, the application of MT and Ti NPs mitigated these adverse effects. Both treatments were effective in reducing MDA and EL, thus minimizing oxidative damage. They also enhanced plant growth parameters, including shoot and root weight, chlorophyll content (Chl a+b), relative water content (RWC), and essential oil (EO) production. The predominant compounds in the EO were α-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-thujone, camphor, and α-humulene. Notably, MT and Ti NPs caused an increase in α-thujone levels, which were otherwise reduced under Cd stress. The study's findings align with previous research that has explored various methods to alleviate metal toxicity in plants. For instance, earlier studies have shown that melatonin can significantly improve Cd-stress tolerance in pearl millet by enhancing antioxidant defense systems and regulating gene expression[2]. Similarly, selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) have been found to alleviate Cd stress in coriander plants by improving yield, water content, and reducing oxidative damage[3]. Furthermore, silicon (Si), Se, and zinc (Zn) nanoparticles have been shown to boost plant growth and essential oil yield in sage plants under Pb and Cd stresses[4]. The combined use of soil-applied biochar (BC) and foliar-applied TiO2 NPs has also been effective in reducing Cd accumulation in wheat plants and enhancing growth parameters[5]. The current study by Islamic Azad University expands on these findings by providing a comparative analysis of MT and Ti NPs in mitigating Cd toxicity specifically in sage plants. The results indicate that MT at 200 μM was particularly effective in enhancing biochemical reactions and reducing Cd accumulation in plant tissues. This suggests that MT could be a more potent agent than Ti NPs for mitigating Cd stress in sage plants. In conclusion, the research underscores the potential of MT and Ti NPs as effective treatments for reducing Cd toxicity in sage plants. By improving plant growth, photosynthesis, water content, and essential oil quality and quantity, these treatments offer promising solutions for cultivating sage and possibly other crops in Cd-contaminated soils. Further studies are needed to explore the broader applications of these findings in different plant species and environmental conditions.

MedicineBiochemPlant Science

References

Main Study

1) Foliar-applied melatonin and titanium nanoparticles modulate cadmium (Cd) toxicity through minimizing Cd accumulation and optimizing physiological and biochemical properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

Published 4th July, 2024

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-024-34126-8


Related Studies

2) Reduction in the cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) by regulating physio-biochemical and antioxidant defense system via soil and foliar application of melatonin.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2023.121658


3) Foliar-applied selenium nanoparticles alleviate cadmium stress through changes in physio-biochemical status and essential oil profile of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19941-1


4) Foliar application of silicon, selenium, and zinc nanoparticles can modulate lead and cadmium toxicity in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants by optimizing growth and biochemical status.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-25959-w


5) Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and co-composted biochar on growth and Cd uptake by wheat plants: A field study.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2023.116057



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