Creating Textured Apple-Based Ingredients with Sesame Waste

Jenn Hoskins
27th April, 2024

Creating Textured Apple-Based Ingredients with Sesame Waste

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • In Iran, a study optimized turning apple and sesame by-products into nutritious food ingredients
  • The best conditions for processing were 176 rpm screw speed, 18% moisture, and a 75:25 apple to sesame mix
  • The resulting food ingredients can improve the nutrition of foods like porridge and cookies
In recent years, the food industry has been exploring innovative ways to repurpose its waste products into nutritious and sustainable food ingredients. A prime example of this trend is the use of food by-products, which are typically discarded during processing, as sources of dietary fiber, protein, and various health-promoting phytochemicals. A new study from the Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR)[1] has made significant strides in this area, focusing on the optimization of the extrusion process to create textured functional ingredients (TFIs) from apple pomace and semi-defatted sesame cake. Apple pomace and sesame cake are by-products from the production of apple juice and sesame oil, respectively. They are rich in dietary fibers and other beneficial compounds but are often underutilized. The ACECR study aimed to transform these by-products into valuable food ingredients that could enhance the nutritional profile of various foods. The researchers used a central composite design to determine the best combination of moisture content and screw speed in the extrusion process, along with the optimal blend of apple pomace (AP) to semi-defatted sesame cake (SDSC). They tested various conditions to achieve the highest possible expansion ratio, water absorption index, brightness level, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and to achieve a lower hardness of the resulting TFIs. The optimal conditions were found to be a screw speed of 176 rpm, a moisture content of 18%, and a blend ratio of 75:25 AP:SDSC. Under these conditions, the TFIs showed desirable characteristics, including a high soluble dietary fiber fraction, indicated by the water absorption index, and a stable plate count over 30 days of storage. This suggests that these TFIs could be used in the production of foods like porridge, beverages, cookies, and soups, potentially offering health benefits to consumers. This study builds upon previous research, such as the one that investigated the production of high fiber expanded barley-carrot pomace snacks[2]. The earlier study had looked into the effects of feed moisture content, die temperature, and carrot pomace content on the properties of extruded snacks. It found that increased moisture content led to harder snacks with a lower expansion ratio, while the addition of carrot pomace resulted in increased hardness and decreased expansion. The current research extends these findings by exploring other by-products and optimizing the extrusion process for better textural and nutritional outcomes. Moreover, the study aligns with research on the use of sesame oil cakes in the production of biocomposites for injection molding[3]. The previous work demonstrated that plant residues like sesame oil cake could reinforce materials and improve their mechanical properties, albeit with some trade-offs in tensile strength. The ACECR study takes a different approach by using semi-defatted sesame cake, a similar by-product, to enhance the nutritional properties of food rather than its structural characteristics. The broader context of this research is the growing interest in functional foods and the sustainable use of food processing by-products[4]. As the food industry generates a large quantity of by-products, finding ways to utilize these materials not only helps in reducing environmental pollution but also contributes to the development of health-promoting foods. The ACECR study is a part of this larger movement towards creating value from waste and promoting health through diet. In summary, the ACECR's research has successfully demonstrated a method to convert apple pomace and semi-defatted sesame cake into nutrient-rich, textured functional ingredients using the extrusion process. By finding the optimal conditions for this transformation, the study opens up new possibilities for the food industry to create innovative products that are both healthy and environmentally friendly. This research not only adds value to food by-products but also offers a template for future studies looking to harness the untapped potential of other food waste materials.



Main Study

1) Fabrication of textured functional ingredient based on apple: Sesame by-product.

Published 30th April, 2024 (future Journal edition)

Related Studies

2) Production of high fiber ready-to-eat expanded snack from barley flour and carrot pomace using extrusion cooking technology.

3) Mechanical Properties of Biocomposites Using Polypropylene and Sesame Oil Cake.

4) Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

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