Exploring How Mushrooms Thrive in Composted Plant and Animal Waste

Jim Crocker
17th March, 2024

Exploring How Mushrooms Thrive in Composted Plant and Animal Waste

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • In Xinjiang, China, co-composting of cotton stalks with sheep or pigeon manure produces quality fertilizer
  • Sheep manure compost showed the fastest microbial growth and highest quality
  • Specific fungi, influenced by factors like potassium and carbon content, are crucial for composting success
In recent years, the management of agricultural waste has become an increasingly important environmental issue. One promising solution is co-composting, a process that combines different types of organic waste, such as livestock manure and crop residues, to create a nutrient-rich fertilizer. Researchers from Kashi University have conducted a study[1] that sheds light on the effectiveness of this practice using various types of livestock manure and cotton stalks, common waste products in Xinjiang, China. The study focused on three types of composts: one using sheep manure (G), another using pigeon manure (Y), and a third combining both (GY), all mixed with cotton stalks. Over a 40-day period, the researchers monitored the physicochemical changes in the composts, assessed their characteristics, and analyzed the fungal communities present. The results were promising: all three composts met the established criteria for successful composting. Compost G, which contained sheep manure, showed the fastest microbial growth and achieved the highest quality among the three. This is significant because microorganisms are the workhorses of the composting process, breaking down organic matter into simpler compounds. The study found that Ascomycota, a large phylum of fungi, was the most prevalent group in the three composts, with Petromyces and Cordyceps, Neurospora, and Neosartorya being the biomarker species for G, Y, and GY respectively. These findings align with previous research indicating that the microbial community structure is crucial for the composting process. For instance, a study on co-composting chicken and pig manure[2] showed that a certain mix of manures could significantly alter microbial diversity and interactions, enhancing the decomposition process. Similarly, the Kashi University study indicates that the type of manure used can influence the microbial community and, consequently, the quality of the compost. Furthermore, the research builds upon earlier findings that explored the ecological functions of core bacteria in composting[3]. The high temperatures and improved compost maturity observed in certain mixtures suggest that specific microorganisms can enhance composting efficiency. The current study adds to this knowledge by identifying key fungal taxa and their roles in composting processes involving different manure types. In addition to understanding the biological aspects, the study also looked at environmental factors. Previous research on the co-composting of agroforestry resources[4] highlighted the importance of soluble nutrients and enzymatic properties in shaping microbial communities. The recent study echoes these findings by pointing out that potassium, total organic carbon, and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) are key factors influencing fungal communities. Finally, the study contributes to the ongoing conversation about the safety of compost use. A previous investigation into the phytotoxicity of composted animal manure[5] underscored the importance of understanding how different composting methods affect plant growth. By examining the fungal communities and physicochemical characteristics of composts from different manure sources, the Kashi University study provides insights into optimizing composting processes for safe and effective agricultural waste management. In conclusion, the research from Kashi University not only confirms the viability of co-composting as a sustainable waste management strategy but also enhances our understanding of the complex interactions between microorganisms and environmental conditions in composting. This knowledge is crucial for developing more efficient composting methods, ultimately contributing to agricultural sustainability and environmental protection.

Plant ScienceAgricultureMycology

References

Main Study

1) Investigating fungal community characteristics in co-composted cotton stalk and various livestock manure products.

Published 16th March, 2024

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-024-32909-7


Related Studies

2) The role of microbiota during chicken manure and pig manure co-composting.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2023.129360


3) Different ratios of raw material triggered composting maturity associated with bacterial community co-occurrence patterns.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-26468-6


4) Characteristics of bacterial and fungal communities and their impact during cow manure and agroforestry biowaste co-composting.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116377


5) Phytotoxicity of farm livestock manures in facultative heap composting using the seed germination index as indicator.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.114251



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