Exploring Basil Oil as a Green Way to Fight Common Moth Pests

Jenn Hoskins
14th March, 2024

Exploring Basil Oil as a Green Way to Fight Common Moth Pests

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • Basil essential oil (EO), especially linalool, can prolong the growth of two common pests, making it a potential bioinsecticide
  • The EO affects detoxification enzymes differently in each pest, altering their ability to handle toxins
  • Molecular studies show linalool from basil EO binds well with detoxification enzymes, hinting at how it impedes pest resistance
In recent years, the agricultural sector has been seeking alternatives to conventional insecticides due to concerns about environmental impact and pest resistance. One promising avenue of research has been the use of essential oils (EOs) as bioinsecticides, which are derived from plants and are considered to be more eco-friendly. A recent study conducted by researchers at Cairo University has explored the potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil, particularly its main component linalool, as a bioinsecticide against two common agricultural pests: the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, and the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis[1]. The study's findings are significant given that S. littoralis, in particular, has shown a capacity for developing resistance to various insecticides[2][3]. The use of basil EO could represent a new strategy in managing these pests in a sustainable manner, especially considering that previous research has demonstrated the importance of enzymes like glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in the detoxification processes of insects[4]. In the study, researchers evaluated the toxicity of basil EO against A. ipsilon and S. littoralis using laboratory bioassays. They discovered that the lethal concentration required to kill half the population (LC50) was similar for both pests, indicating that basil EO has a comparable effect on each. Furthermore, when larvae were exposed to sublethal concentrations (LC15 or LC50), it resulted in a prolonged larval stage compared to untreated control groups. The biochemical impact of the basil EO treatment was also examined. It was found that the activity of detoxification enzymes, such as GSTs, was significantly altered. In A. ipsilon larvae, there was an increase in GST activity, while in S. littoralis larvae, there was a decrease. These changes in enzyme activity are important because they can affect the insect's ability to detoxify xenobiotics, which are foreign compounds like insecticides. To understand how basil EO interacts with the detoxification enzymes at the molecular level, the researchers performed a molecular docking study. This technique allows scientists to predict how a molecule, such as linalool, will bind to a specific protein—in this case, the enzyme GST. The results showed that linalool has a good binding affinity with GST, particularly bonding with the amino acid serine at position 9. This suggests that linalool, the main component of basil EO, can potentially interfere with the detoxification process in these pests. The current study builds upon and expands earlier research, providing insights into how essential oils can affect insect biochemistry and development[2][4]. For instance, the identification and characterization of GST genes in S. frugiperda[4] and the investigation into enzyme inhibitors' role in increasing the toxicity of certain insecticides[2] both highlight the relevance of detoxification pathways in pest management. The Cairo University study adds to this body of knowledge by demonstrating that basil EO, and linalool in particular, can impact these pathways, potentially offering a new tool for pest control. This research is part of a broader effort to find more sustainable and less harmful ways to protect crops from pests. The findings suggest that basil EO could be a valuable component in integrated pest management strategies, reducing the reliance on traditional synthetic insecticides and mitigating the risk of resistance development. In conclusion, the study from Cairo University provides promising evidence that basil essential oil, rich in linalool, could be an effective and environmentally friendly bioinsecticide. By affecting the growth and detoxification enzymes of agricultural pests, basil EO has the potential to become an important part of the future of pest management. As the agricultural sector continues to seek out sustainable solutions, studies like this one are crucial in guiding the way towards more natural and less impactful crop protection methods.

SustainabilityPlant ScienceAgriculture

References

Main Study

1) Towards Sustainable Pest Management: Toxicity, Biochemical Effects, and Molecular Docking Analysis of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil on Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Published 13th March, 2024

https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-024-01137-6


Related Studies

2) Enhancing the Toxicity of Cypermethrin and Spinosad against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by Inhibition of Detoxification Enzymes.

https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11030215


3) Monitoring Resistance and Biochemical Studies of Three Egyptian Field Strains of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Six Insecticides.

https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11030211


4) Identification and Characterization of Glutathione S-transferase Genes in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under Insecticides Stress.

https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060542



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