How nanoparticles help black cumin plants resist drought and metal toxicity

Jim Crocker
25th January, 2024

How nanoparticles help black cumin plants resist drought and metal toxicity

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

When plants are put under stressful conditions like a lack of water or exposure to harmful substances, their growth and health can take a serious hit. One way to potentially help them cope with these tough times is through the use of tiny particles called nanoparticles. Researchers have been looking into two types in particular—silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles—to see if they could be the key to aiding plants during environmental stress. A recent study zeroed in on black cumin plants, prized not only for their seeds used in cooking but also for their medicinal properties. The researchers wanted to see what would happen when these plants were faced with a double trouble scenario—drying out due to insufficient water and being poisoned by chromium, a toxic heavy metal. It's like having to run a marathon in a smog-filled city—neither the dehydration nor the polluted air is helpful for a record-breaking run. The scientists tried out a technique that you might find familiar if you've ever sprayed plants with water to clean their leaves—except, instead of water, they used a mist containing our tiny particles. To be exact, they applied a solution with 200 milligrams per liter of silicon dioxide nanoparticles and another with 60 milligrams per liter of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the leaves of the plants. They observed that the black cumin plants suffering from drought and chromium toxicity weren't doing so well—they grew less, their green pigment (chlorophyll) levels dropped, and signs of damage within their cells increased. Think of it like the plant version of feeling unwell and turning a bit pale. But when the silicon dioxide nanoparticles were introduced, things began to look up. The plants appeared greener, had more weight in both their shoots and roots, and even produced more seeds—up to 36% more! On top of that, the indicators of cell damage went down. This is a bit like someone getting their groove back after a spa treatment. This is particularly interesting for the fatty acids in the plants, which are like the building blocks of healthy plant oils. The black cumin plants had more polyunsaturated fatty acids when stressed, providing a less desirable oil profile. Yet, with the help of nanoparticles, the balance of these fats was improved. In simple terms, the plants not only coped better but also produced healthier oils. A closer look at the data showed a clear pattern: healthier, heavier plants with higher chlorophyll and better seed production went hand-in-hand with lower levels of stress indicators. It seems that using silicon dioxide nanoparticles could be a bit like giving plants a protective boost, helping them to not only survive tough conditions but to thrive and give better yields. So, if you're growing black cumin, or possibly other plants facing similar harsh conditions, spraying them with these nanoparticles could be like providing a suit of armor against environmental stress. It might just be the difference between a struggling plant and a bountiful harvest. The study suggests that this method is worth considering, especially when aiming for maximum yield and maintaining a healthy fatty acid profile in the seeds.

BiochemPlant ScienceAgriculture

References

Main Study

1) Silicon and titanium nanoparticles modulated drought and chromium toxicity by adjusting physio-biochemical attributes and fatty acid profiles of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.).

Published 23rd January, 2024

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-024-32045-2



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