Nanoparticles with Rutin Reduce Toxin Damage in Chicken Immune Organs

Jim Crocker
5th May, 2024

Nanoparticles with Rutin Reduce Toxin Damage in Chicken Immune Organs

Image Source: Bezalel Thilojan (photographer)

Key Findings

  • Study conducted on broiler chickens at Mansoura University found cadmium in the environment harms their immune systems
  • Rutin nanoparticles in the diet helped chickens recover from cadmium's negative effects, improving health and growth
  • The study suggests rutin nanoparticles could be a protective dietary supplement for poultry against environmental toxins like cadmium
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that poses a significant environmental hazard, known to infiltrate food chains and cause a multitude of health issues in both animals and humans. Its presence in the environment is a growing concern, particularly in the agricultural sector where it can affect the health and productivity of livestock. A recent study conducted by researchers at Mansoura University[1] has shed light on the immunotoxic effects of cadmium on broiler chickens and explored the potential protective role of rutin nanoparticles (RNPs) against these harmful effects. Broiler chickens are a staple in poultry production, valued for their rapid growth and meat yield. However, they are susceptible to environmental pollutants like cadmium, which can accumulate in their bodies and lead to serious health complications, including damage to the immune system. This can result in a decreased ability to fight off infections and diseases, adversely affecting their growth and the poultry industry's economic viability. The study involved dividing 150 Hubbard breed chicks into five groups, each receiving different treatments over the study period. One group was given a standard diet and served as the control, while another was exposed to cadmium through drinking water. A third group received a diet supplemented with rutin nanoparticles, known for their antioxidant properties, in addition to cadmium exposure. The research aimed to determine whether RNPs could counteract the negative effects of cadmium. Cadmium exposure in broilers has been previously documented to have detrimental effects. Studies have shown that cadmium can lead to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular abnormalities in rodents, with male subjects being more adversely affected than females[2]. In broiler chicks, cadmium exposure has been associated with significant changes in hematological and biochemical parameters, indicating systemic toxicity[3]. Furthermore, cadmium exposure during development has been observed to cause myocardial developmental toxicity, which could be alleviated by the flavonoid compound astilbin[4]. These findings underscore the potential for certain compounds to mitigate the harmful effects of cadmium. The Mansoura University study evaluated the impact of cadmium on the productive performance and economic efficiency of broiler chickens, as well as the oxidative stress markers, histopathological changes, and gene expression in the bursal tissue—a critical component of the chicken's immune system. The results demonstrated that cadmium exposure led to significant production losses, increased oxidative stress, and upregulation of genes associated with inflammation and cell death in the bursal tissue. Notably, the study found that the inclusion of RNPs in the diet of chickens exposed to cadmium helped alleviate many of these adverse effects. The RNPs appeared to act as immunomodulators, reducing oxidative stress and normalizing the expression of genes involved in the immune response. This resulted in improved health and productivity of the broilers, suggesting that RNPs could be a valuable dietary supplement to protect against cadmium-induced immunotoxicity. The mechanism behind the protective effect of RNPs may be attributed to their antioxidant properties, which help to neutralize the oxidative damage caused by cadmium. By modulating the expression of genes like TLR-4, HSP-70, NF-κB, caspase 3, Bcl-2, and Bax, RNPs seem to reduce inflammation and cell death in the bursal tissue, thereby preserving the integrity of the immune system. The findings of this study are significant for the poultry industry, as they provide a potential strategy to safeguard the health of broiler chickens against environmental pollutants like cadmium. By incorporating RNPs into poultry diets, farmers could enhance the resilience of their flocks to toxic substances and improve their overall productivity. In summary, the research from Mansoura University contributes to a growing body of evidence on the dangers of cadmium exposure in poultry and offers a promising solution in the form of rutin nanoparticles. This approach not only has the potential to improve the well-being of broiler chickens but also supports the sustainability and economic success of poultry farming operations.

HealthBiotechAnimal Science


Main Study

1) Rutin Nanoparticles Alleviate Cadmium-Induced Oxidative and Immune Damage in Broilers’ Bursa of Fabricius via Modulating Hsp70/TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

Published 4th May, 2024

Related Studies

2) Sex-dependent vascular effects of cadmium sub-chronic exposure on rats.

3) Evaluation of Cadmium Chloride-Induced Toxicity in Chicks Via Hematological, Biochemical Parameters, and Cadmium Level in Tissues.

4) Astilbin antagonizes developmental cardiotoxicity after cadmium exposure in chicken embryos by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and maintaining calcium homeostasis.

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