Ginsenoside Rg1 Reduces Cell Inflammation to Help Chronic Stomach Inflammation

Jim Crocker
11th June, 2024

Ginsenoside Rg1 Reduces Cell Inflammation to Help Chronic Stomach Inflammation

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • Researchers at Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine found that ginsenoside Rg1 can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)
  • Rg1 was shown to improve cell structure and function by counteracting pyroptosis, a harmful form of cell death
  • The study identified that Rg1 works by regulating the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD pathway, which is crucial in controlling inflammation and pyroptosis
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a condition marked by the loss of gastric glandular cells, which are replaced by intestinal-type epithelium and fibrous tissue. This condition can lead to significant gastrointestinal issues and potentially increase the risk of gastric cancer. Recent research conducted by Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine has explored the potential therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), a prevalent component in ginseng, on CAG[1]. Ginseng has long been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for its myriad health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities[2][3]. One of the active components, Rg1, has shown promise in treating various conditions like diabetes, liver disorders, and neuropsychiatric disorders[4][5]. However, its impact on CAG and the underlying mechanisms, particularly concerning pyroptosis, a novel form of programmed cell death, remained unknown until now. In this study, researchers developed a CAG rat model using a multifactor comprehensive method to simulate the disease. Additionally, a cellular model was created using GES-1 cells treated with 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and Nigericin to induce pyroptosis. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death that can exacerbate tissue damage and inflammation, making it a critical target for therapeutic intervention. Upon administering Rg1, the researchers observed a reduction in inflammatory indicators within the gastric tissue and cell supernatant. This aligns with previous findings that Rg1 has significant anti-inflammatory properties[3]. Specifically, the study noted a decrease in myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, which are markers of oxidative stress, and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, an antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that Rg1 can mitigate oxidative stress, a known contributor to CAG progression[4]. Furthermore, Rg1 improved the morphology and plasma membrane integrity of GES-1 cells that had undergone MNNG+Nigericin-induced pyroptosis. This indicates that Rg1 can counteract the detrimental effects of pyroptosis, thereby preserving cell structure and function. The study provided novel evidence that Rg1 exerts its therapeutic effect by regulating the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD pathway, which is crucial in the pyroptosis process. The NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD pathway plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response and pyroptosis. NF-κB is a protein complex that controls the transcription of DNA, cytokine production, and cell survival. NLRP3 is a component of the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that activates inflammatory responses. GSDMD is a protein that, when cleaved, forms pores in the cell membrane, leading to pyroptosis. By influencing this pathway, Rg1 can effectively reduce inflammation and pyroptosis, offering a protective effect against CAG. To further validate these findings, the researchers conducted experiments involving the overexpression and knockout of GSDMD in GES-1 cells. The results confirmed that GSDMD is a key target in Rg1's mechanism of action, solidifying its role in suppressing pyroptosis. This discovery not only enhances our understanding of Rg1's therapeutic potential but also opens new avenues for developing targeted treatments for CAG. In summary, the study from Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine provides compelling evidence that Rg1 can ameliorate CAG by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, and by inhibiting pyroptosis through the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD pathway. These findings build on previous research highlighting the broad therapeutic potential of Rg1 in various diseases[2][3][4][5]. The multi-target actions of Rg1 substantiate its promise as a drug candidate for treating CAG and possibly other related conditions.



Main Study

1) Ginsenoside Rg1 Suppresses Pyroptosis via the NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD Pathway to Alleviate Chronic Atrophic Gastritis In Vitro and In Vivo.

Published 10th June, 2024

Related Studies

2) Ginsenoside Rg1 prevent and treat inflammatory diseases: A review.

3) Ginsenoside Rg1 in neurological diseases: From bench to bedside.

4) Ginsenoside Rg1 and the control of inflammation implications for the therapy of type 2 diabetes: A review of scientific findings and call for further research.

5) Hepataprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 - A review.

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