How Melon Seed Oil Cake Particle Size Affects Bread Quality

Jim Crocker
9th June, 2024

How Melon Seed Oil Cake Particle Size Affects Bread Quality

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • The study from the University of Reading explored using melon seed oil cake (MSOC) as a wheat flour substitute in bread
  • Bread with 3% MSOC had similar quality to control bread in terms of volume and hardness
  • Fine MSOC particles resulted in lower bread volume and higher hardness compared to medium and coarse particles
Melon seed oil cake (MSOC), a by-product from the melon seed oil pressing process, holds significant nutritional potential. Researchers from the University of Reading aimed to investigate the impact of incorporating MSOC as a wheat flour substitute in bread and how the particle size of MSOC affects bread quality[1]. This study is particularly relevant as it explores sustainable food production by reintroducing by-products into the food chain. The study assessed three particle size fractions of MSOC (coarse, medium, and fine) and two substitution levels (3% and 6%, by weight) in bread. The functional properties and color of different MSOC particle sizes were evaluated, and the physical properties of the resulting bread were compared to control bread made with 100% wheat flour. Results indicated that bread made with 3% MSOC had comparable quality to control bread in terms of specific volume (2.64–2.86 mL/g) and hardness (14.31–15.04 N), with the control bread showing a specific volume of 2.79 mL/g and hardness of 13.87 N. However, bread made with fine MSOC particles demonstrated lower specific volume and higher hardness values compared to bread made with medium and coarse MSOC particles. Specifically, fine MSOC at a 3% substitution level resulted in a specific volume of 2.64 mL/g and hardness of 15.04 N, while medium and coarse MSOC at the same substitution level showed better results (2.80 mL/g and 14.31 N, and 2.86 mL/g and 14.72 N, respectively). These findings align with earlier studies that highlight the importance of particle size on food properties. For instance, a study on quinoa flour revealed that finer particles increased protein, crude fat, and dietary fiber content but decreased starch content, influencing the rheological properties and antioxidant activity[2]. Similarly, the current study found that MSOC particle size significantly affects bread quality, with larger particles yielding better results. The research also draws parallels with previous work on bread dough development. A study on sheeting bread doughs found that the addition of bran, particularly fine and coarse particles, decreased dough expansion and loaf volumes[3]. This aligns with the current study's observation that finer MSOC particles negatively impacted bread quality, suggesting an optimal particle size for maintaining desirable bread characteristics. Additionally, amaranth flour (AF) studies have shown that composite flours with different particle sizes can affect dough development and bread properties[4]. The current study's findings that medium and coarse MSOC particles produce better bread quality are consistent with the idea that particle size optimization is crucial for enhancing bread's physical and nutritional properties. Incorporating MSOC into bread production presents an opportunity to develop novel, sustainable food products. By utilizing a by-product that would otherwise contribute to waste, this approach addresses both environmental and economic concerns. Previous research has highlighted the potential of fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) in baked goods, emphasizing their nutritional benefits and the need for a better understanding of their physical structure and composition[5]. The current study contributes to this body of knowledge by demonstrating that MSOC can be effectively used in bread making, provided the particle size is optimized. In conclusion, the University of Reading's study illustrates that MSOC, particularly with larger particle sizes, can be a valuable ingredient in bread production, offering satisfactory quality at a 3% substitution level. This research paves the way for future studies on sensory quality and consumer acceptance, ultimately contributing to the development of sustainable and nutritious food products.



Main Study

1) Impact of melon seed oil cake with different particle sizes on bread quality

Published 8th June, 2024

Related Studies

2) Functional, rheological, microstructural and antioxidant properties of quinoa flour in dispersions as influenced by particle size.

3) Development of Bread Dough by Sheeting: Effects of Sheeting Regime, Bran Level and Bran Particle Size.

4) Addition of Amaranth Flour of Different Particle Sizes at Established Doses in Wheat Flour to Achieve a Nutritional Improved Wheat Bread.

5) Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

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