Effectiveness of Pond Apple Extract on Shrimp Disease Prevention

Jenn Hoskins
25th May, 2024

Effectiveness of Pond Apple Extract on Shrimp Disease Prevention

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • The study by Tra Vinh University explored using compounds from pond apple (Annona glabra) to prevent and treat AHPND in shrimp
  • Methanol extracts of A. glabra were highly effective in killing the bacteria causing AHPND
  • Shrimp fed with methanol extract diets showed no adverse effects and had increased growth and survival rates
  • The methanol extract enhanced the shrimp's immune system, increasing haemocyte counts and reducing bacterial load in the hepatopancreas
Shrimp aquaculture is a vital industry, but it faces significant challenges, including the threat of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This disease, caused by the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, has a devastating impact on shrimp populations and thus on the economic stability of aquaculture operations. A recent study conducted by Tra Vinh University has explored the potential of using compounds from the pond apple (Annona glabra) to prevent and treat AHPND in shrimp[1]. The study focused on extracting compounds from the leaves of A. glabra using various solvents, including ethanol, water, and methanol. The methanol extract demonstrated the most potent bactericidal effects against V. parahaemolyticus, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.023 ± 0.012 mg ml-1 and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.065 ± 0.062 mg ml-1. These findings indicate that methanol extracts of A. glabra are highly effective in inhibiting the growth of the bacteria responsible for AHPND. To evaluate the practical application of these extracts, white leg shrimp (P. vannamei) were fed diets containing different concentrations of the methanol extract (1%, 1.5%, and 2.0%). Over a period of 30 days, the shrimp showed no adverse effects on survival rates. In fact, there was a significant increase in both length and weight compared to the control group. This suggests that the methanol extract not only combats bacterial infection but also promotes overall shrimp growth and health. Further analysis revealed that the total haemocyte count, as well as specific types of haemocytes (hyaline and granulocyte), increased significantly in shrimp fed with the methanol extract diets. Haemocytes are crucial components of the shrimp's immune system, and their increase indicates an enhanced innate immune response. Notably, the granulocyte count was found to increase in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that prolonged exposure to the extract could further bolster the shrimp's immune defenses. The study also demonstrated that shrimp fed with 1.5% and 2.0% methanol extract diets had significantly higher survival rates when challenged with V. parahaemolyticus compared to the control group. This was accompanied by a notable decrease in bacterial load in the hepatopancreas, the organ most affected by AHPND. These findings imply that the methanol extract not only enhances the shrimp's immune system but also helps maintain the integrity of hepatopancreatic tissue. The research ties into broader findings on the use of natural compounds in combating bacterial infections. For instance, flavonoids, a class of compounds found in many plants, have been shown to possess significant biological activity, including antibacterial properties[2]. This aligns with the antibacterial effects observed in the A. glabra extracts. Additionally, the search for alternative treatments to antibiotics is crucial given the growing issue of antibiotic resistance[3][4]. The use of natural compounds like those from A. glabra offers a promising avenue to address this problem without contributing to antibiotic resistance. Moreover, the interaction of natural compounds with gut microbiota has been highlighted as a key mechanism behind their bioactivity[5]. While the current study did not specifically investigate gut microbiota, the enhanced immune response and growth in shrimp suggest that such interactions could be at play, further supporting the potential of A. glabra extracts as a health enhancer in shrimp aquaculture. In conclusion, the study by Tra Vinh University provides compelling evidence that methanol extracts of A. glabra can effectively prevent and treat AHPND in shrimp. By enhancing the immune system, promoting growth, and maintaining tissue integrity, these extracts offer a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics. This approach not only addresses the immediate threat of AHPND but also contributes to the broader effort of sustainable and responsible aquaculture practices.

MedicineAnimal ScienceMarine Biology


Main Study

1) Efficacy of Annona glabra extract against acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).

Published 22nd May, 2024


Related Studies

2) Flavonoids: new roles for old molecules.


3) Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment.

Journal: Environmental microbiology, Issue: Vol 8, Issue 7, Jul 2006

4) Developing New Antimicrobial Therapies: Are Synergistic Combinations of Plant Extracts/Compounds with Conventional Antibiotics the Solution?


5) Interactions between gut microbiota and polyphenols: A mechanistic and metabolomic review.


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