How Propylparaben and Dichloropropylparaben Affect Land Plants

Greg Howard
8th July, 2024

How Propylparaben and Dichloropropylparaben Affect Land Plants

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • The study from the Federal Technological University of Paraná examined the effects of PrP and diClPrP on various plant species
  • Both compounds significantly reduced seed root elongation in onion, cucumber, tomato, and lettuce
  • PrP and diClPrP disrupted the cell cycle and decreased cell proliferation in onion bulb roots
  • These compounds caused oxidative stress by impairing key antioxidant enzymes, leading to cellular damage and reduced growth
Propylparaben (PrP) and dichloropropylparaben (diClPrP) have been found in soil worldwide, primarily due to the incorporation of urban sludge in crop soils and the use of non-raw wastewater for irrigation. A recent study conducted by the Federal Technological University of Paraná explored the phytotoxic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effects of these compounds on various plant species, including Allium cepa (onion), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Lycopersicum sculentum (tomato), and Lactuca sativa (lettuce)[1]. The study evaluated PrP and diClPrP at concentrations of 4, 40, and 400 µg/L. It was found that both compounds significantly reduced seed root elongation in all four plant species tested. Specifically, in A. cepa bulb roots, PrP and diClPrP resulted in a high prophase index, indicating a disruption in the cell cycle. Additionally, PrP at 400 µg/L and diClPrP at all concentrations significantly decreased cell proliferation and caused alterations in a substantial number of cells. DiClPrP also induced the development of hooked roots in onion bulbs, further indicating its phytotoxic effects. The study also examined the impact of these compounds on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root meristems of A. cepa bulbs. ROS are highly reactive molecules that can cause oxidative damage to cells. The results showed that PrP and diClPrP caused significant changes in the modulation of key antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase. These enzymes play crucial roles in protecting cells against oxidative damage by neutralizing ROS[2][3]. The disruption of these enzymes' activities by PrP and diClPrP left the root meristems vulnerable to oxidative stress, leading to cellular damage and reduced growth. This study builds on previous research that has identified the presence of parabens in environmental samples. For instance, a study conducted in Madrid, Spain, found methylparaben and propylparaben in sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment plants[4]. The findings from the Federal Technological University of Paraná expand on this by demonstrating the toxic effects of PrP and diClPrP on plant species, highlighting the potential risks associated with the presence of these compounds in agricultural soils. In summary, the study from the Federal Technological University of Paraná provides crucial insights into the harmful effects of PrP and diClPrP on plant growth and cellular health. By causing significant reductions in seed root elongation, disrupting cell proliferation, and impairing the antioxidant defense system, these compounds pose a threat to plant species and potentially to the broader ecosystem. These findings underscore the need for further research and regulatory measures to address the presence of parabens in the environment and their impact on plant health.

EnvironmentBiochemPlant Science

References

Main Study

1) Toxicity of the emerging pollutants propylparaben and dichloropropylparaben to terrestrial plants.

Published 8th July, 2024

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-024-34178-w


Related Studies

2) Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase-representative H2O2-detoxifying heme enzymes in plants.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7309-6


3) Lipids and proteins--major targets of oxidative modifications in abiotic stressed plants.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3917-1


4) Occurrence and analysis of parabens in municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Madrid (Spain).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.017



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