Creating the Perfect Clove-Enhanced Probiotic Yogurt

Greg Howard
24th June, 2024

Creating the Perfect Clove-Enhanced Probiotic Yogurt

Image Source: Natural Science News, 2024

Key Findings

  • Researchers at UCSI University developed a functional yoghurt with clove extract and probiotics to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  • Higher concentrations of clove extract in the yoghurt increased its acidity, antibacterial effectiveness, and improved texture and color
  • The optimal yoghurt formulation was found to be 7.5% clove extract, 37°C fermentation temperature, and 4.5% culture concentration, balancing antimicrobial properties and probiotic viability
Recent research conducted by UCSI University has explored the antimicrobial effects of functional yoghurts supplemented with clove extract and probiotics[1]. This study is significant as it addresses the growing concern of antibiotic resistance and the need for alternative antimicrobial agents. The researchers focused on optimizing the formulation of aqueous clove extract (ACE) incorporated with probiotic yoghurt, examining various parameters such as ACE concentrations, fermentation temperature, and culture concentration. The study utilized a Box-Behnken design to determine the optimal conditions for the yoghurt formulation. They measured responses like pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, water holding capacity, viscosity, springiness, color difference, lactic acid bacteria viability, and antibacterial properties against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that higher ACE concentrations led to a significant increase in titratable acidity, antibacterial effectiveness, springiness, and color profile. Conversely, higher fermentation temperatures significantly reduced pH and the viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Additionally, increased culture concentrations resulted in a significant decline in the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis, as well as a reduction in springiness. The optimal conditions identified were a 7.5% (v/v) ACE concentration, a fermentation temperature of 36.6°C (approximately 37°C), and a total culture concentration of 4.5% (v/v), yielding a 79% desirability score. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the optimized functional yoghurt revealed key components at wavelengths of 3258 cm-1, 1636 cm-1, and 1075 cm-1, corresponding to the stretching vibrations of hydroxyl, carbonyl, and ether or alcohol groups, respectively. This study ties together previous findings on the antimicrobial properties of clove extract and probiotics. For instance, earlier research demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) exhibited significant antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, with major compounds like oleic acid and guanosine contributing to its efficacy[2]. The current study builds on this by incorporating clove extract into a probiotic yoghurt, thereby creating a functional food with enhanced antimicrobial properties. Furthermore, the use of probiotics such as Lactococcus lactis in the yoghurt formulation is supported by earlier studies that highlighted the potential of these bacteria in solubilizing and mineralizing phosphate from various sources, indicating their robustness and versatility[3]. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of cell-free supernatants (CFS) of lactobacilli against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa has been previously noted, suggesting that probiotics can play a crucial role in combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens[4]. By optimizing the conditions for the yoghurt formulation, the researchers not only enhanced its antimicrobial properties but also ensured the viability of beneficial probiotics. This dual functionality makes the yoghurt a promising candidate for both nutritional and therapeutic applications, particularly in managing infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Overall, this study from UCSI University provides a comprehensive approach to developing functional foods with potent antimicrobial properties, leveraging the benefits of both clove extract and probiotics. It offers a viable alternative to traditional antibiotics and contributes to the ongoing efforts to address the global challenge of antibiotic resistance.

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References

Main Study

1) Development of optimized functional clove fortified probiotic yoghurt.

Published 24th June, 2024

https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-023-05904-y


Related Studies

2) Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium aromaticum in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates Associated with Urinary Tract Infections.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6612058


3) Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) Lactococcus lactis strains associated with Lippia sidoides Cham. are able to solubilize/mineralize phosphate.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2596-4


4) Antagonistic Activities of Cell-Free Supernatants of Lactobacilli Against Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S235603



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